The following article was sourced from a Wikipedia page at the following address: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Window_blind
A window blind is a type of window covering. There are many different kinds of window blinds which use a variety of control systems. A typical window blind is made up of several long horizontal or vertical slats of various types of fabric, wood, plastic or metal which are held together by cords that run through the blind slats. Window blinds can be adjusted by rotating them from an open position to a closed position with either a manual or remote control which allows the slats to overlap and block out most of the light. There are also several types of window blinds that use a single piece of material instead of slats.
A window blind is also known as a window shade.
The term window blinds is also sometimes used to describe window coverings generically—in this context window blinds include almost every type of window covering, i.e. shutters, roller blinds, honeycomb shades, wood blinds, roman blinds and of course, standard vertical and horizontal blinds. In the United Kingdom, awnings are sometimes called blinds or shades.
OVERVIEW OF DIFFERENT BLIND TYPES
The two overall types of window blinds are ready-made blinds and made to measure. Made-to-measure blinds are made to fit a given or measured window size. Ready made blinds are manufactured in set sizes that can be cut down to fit any window.
These blinds can be classified broadly into 5 different categories, the Venetian blinds, the Roller blinds, the Roman blinds, the Pleated blinds and the Vertical blinds.
Many window blinds are made with slats of fabric, wood, plastic, or metal that adjust by rotating from an open position to a closed position by allowing slats to overlap. A roller blind does not have slats but consists of a single piece of material. Metal window blinds are often used outside of the home or business to protect against theft, temperature, vision, bad weather, and fire (in fire-prone areas). Often these blinds are machine-operated, rather than hand-operated.
The horizontal version uses a thin woven corded "ladder" system to suspend the slats and enable slats to be closed via a rotating drum to which each upper end of the woven ladder is wrapped and attached. A lift cord allows the blind to be pulled up and stack tightly to top of the window when desired. One of the earliest patents for a window shade was in 1888 by George L. Castner.
The vertical version uses a generally wider slat and has the added feature of being able to pull a cord to stack the slats together either to one side or to separate in the centre and stack on each end. This vertical blind allows rotation of slats by a rotating shaft in the upper head rail housing which runs through independent geared carriers that will convert twisting of tilt rail to a rotation of each individual slat in synchrony. The original vertical blinds were invented in Kansas City, Missouri by Edward Bopp and Fredrick Bopp who held the original patent. The company name at the time was Sun Vertical. In the 1960s, the patent and company was sold.
The term window blinds is also sometimes used, somewhat inaccurately, to describe window coverings generically—in this context window blinds include almost every type of window covering including both curtains and blinds for homes, offices and commercial premises such as shops, pubs and bars, e.g. Plantation Shutters/Jigsaw Shutters, roller blinds, Roman blinds and of course, vertical and horizontal blinds.
In Britain, awnings and window shutters are often categorised under blinds. A blind limits observation and thus “blinds” the observer to the view. The main types are slat blinds which can be opened in two ways and solid blinds.
Solid blinds can only be raised or lowered and are sometimes called shades. There are types of blinds, such as Holland blinds and woven-wood blinds, where there are small spaces between the slats. In others such as pleated shades there are no spaces because the slats are sewn inside fabric.
Window blinds reduce the heat from sunlight. Ancient Egyptian pharaohs had blinds made of reeds. The most inexpensive blinds in the 19th century were home-made roller blinds, made of cloth.
Window blinds can be manually drawn using a cord, or automated through motorization. Controls for motorized blinds can be from a wall switch or keypad, remote control, or a personal computer, eliminating the need for cords and allowing control of otherwise inaccessible windows. A number of homes are integrating blind control with central C-Bus solutions. This control provides ease-of-use, but is also effective to control blind operation to reduce heat loss during winter or heat effects during summer.
Persian or slat
Related patents were taken out in England by Gowin Knight in 1760 and Edward Beran on 11 December 1769, but Venetian blinds were known to the French long before then. In 1761, St. Peter's Church, Philadelphia had such blinds.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Venetian blinds were widely adopted in office buildings to regulate light and air. A large modern complex in the US that adopted Venetian blinds was Rockefeller Centre's RCA Building (better known as the Radio City building) in New York City, completed in the 1930s. One of the largest orders for Venetian blinds ever placed was to the Burlington Venetian Blind Co., of Burlington, Vermont, which supplied blinds for the windows of the Empire State Building in New York City.
Vertical blinds are available in flat plastic (PVC), fabric, embossed PVC, faux wood materials, metal, wood and also S-curved slats.
Stationary vertical blinds are hung in the doorways of some homes and businesses which generally leave the door open. Movement of the blind may signal a change in air flow, or someone entering the doorway. More commonly however, these vertical blinds are made of thick plastic. In the cold rooms of food businesses, this slows the heat leakage into the cold room. In warmer climates, vertical blinds discourage flies and some other insects from entering the building.
Roman blinds can be purchased with a blackout lining on the back to fully block out sunlight.
Unlike other blinds such as roller, vertical, and Venetian blinds, Romans offer no option to protect against high temperatures or moisture, making them unsuitable for bathrooms.
Blinds can be made in a variety of materials, some expensive, and some less so. Cheaper blinds are usually made in vinyl, polyester, aluminium, or PVC. These are inexpensive materials that are all easily accessible and durable at the same time.
A window blind is a means of screening a window, achieving similar results to those obtained by fitting curtains. Blinds are typically the same width and height as the window itself or slightly wider and taller—depending on whether they are fixed inside (Recess) or outside (Facefix) the window's reveal (i.e. the wall recess within which the window itself is fixed).
Window blinds have varying thermal effects: they can block unwanted heat of the summer sun and they can keep in heat in cold weather. But in both of these applications, they also reduce light to varying degrees, depending on the design. Many kinds of blinds attempt varying balances of privacy and shade. Blinds can be made of a number of different materials and manufactured in a number of different ways. This usually determines the name by which the blind is commonly known.
In Malaysia, an outdoor blind is sometimes called a "chik". The word was carried over from India by the British during the colonial times.
Corded window blinds have strangled over 500 children in the last few decades. Corded horizontal blinds account for 57.5% of all strangulations. Vertical, Draperies, and Roman Shades account for 37.2% of accidental strangulations among children. Recalls of window covering products have not significantly reduced the number of deaths since 1980. Retrofit kits have been used since 1995 to "reduce" the strangulation hazard; however, children have strangled on retrofit kits since 1995. The US CPSC recommends using cordless or cord-free window coverings where children live or visit. For window coverings that use continuous-loop cord systems, like vertical blinds, a wall cord cleat can be used to anchor the cord tightly to the wall and prevent children from having access to the dangling cord loop. Window blinds slats are held together with cords that allow for tilting slats, raising or lowering, and these are potentially dangerous if loose. As an added precaution, cord stops should be installed correctly and adjusted to restrict the movement of inner lift cords.
Some vehicles include or are retrofitted with sun blinds for rear and rear side windows. See also car glass. These blinds are used to protect the vehicle and the passengers from direct sunlight.
Car shades are another common way to protect the vehicle. The shades for the rear and front windows are designed to be unfolded and sit against the window. They can be made of plastic or cardboard. The shades that go on the side windows of a vehicle are usually attached using suction cups or using static cling.
Solid fabric and slat car blinds have given way to cheaper and more flexible, folding wire-framed "dark-stocking" synthetic blinds. These are used where the car owner has not dark-tinted the glass of the car windows enough. or during the day, wishing to have more privacy.
Blind with horizontal slats
For more information re blinds, please click on the following link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Window_blind