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Effects include light foundation, rouge on cheekbones, eyebrow plucking, simple black eye liner
Cosmetics (colloquially known as makeup or make-up) are care substances used to enhance the appearance or odour of the human body. They are generally mixtures of chemical compounds, some being derived from natural sources and many being synthetics.
In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which regulates cosmetics, defines cosmetics as "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition also includes any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.
The word cosmetics derives from the Greek, meaning "technique of dress and ornament", "skilled in ordering or arranging" meaning amongst others "order" and "ornament". The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics comes from the hollowed out tombs of the Ancient Egyptian pharaohs. Archaeological evidence of cosmetics dates at least from ancient Egypt and Greece. According to one source, early major developments include:
The Ancient Greeks also used cosmetics. Cosmetics are mentioned in the Old Testament, such as in 2 Kings 9:30, where Jezebel painted her eyelids—approximately 840 BC—and in the book of Esther, where various beauty treatments are described.
One of the most popular Traditional Chinese Medicines is the fungus Tremella fuciformis; used as a beauty product by women in China and Japan. The fungus reportedly increases moisture retention in the skin and prevents senile degradation of micro-blood vessels in the skin, reducing wrinkles and smoothing fine lines. Other anti-ageing effects come from increasing the presence of superoxide dismutase in the brain and liver; it is an enzyme that acts as a potent antioxidant throughout the body, particularly in the skin.
Cosmetic use was frowned upon at many points in Western history. For example, in the 19th century, Queen Victoria publicly declared makeup improper, vulgar, and acceptable only for use by actors.
During the sixteenth century, the personal attributes of the women who used make-up created a demand for the product among the upper class.
Of the major cosmetics firms, the largest is L'Oréal, which was founded by Eugene Schueller in 1909 as the French Harmless Hair Colouring Company (now owned by Liliane Bettencourt 26% and Nestlé 28%; the remaining 46% is traded publicly). The market was developed in the USA during the 1910s by Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein, and Max Factor. These firms were joined by Revlon just before World War II and Estée Lauder just after.
Beauty products are now widely available from dedicated internet-only retailers, who have more recently been joined online by established outlets, including the major department stores and traditional bricks and mortar beauty retailers.
Although modern make-up has been traditionally used mainly by women, an increasing number of males are gradually using cosmetics usually associated to women to enhance or cover their own facial features. Concealer is commonly used by self-conscious men. Cosmetics brands release cosmetic products especially tailored for men, and men are increasingly using such products.
Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, towelettes, permanent waves, coloured contact lenses, hair colours, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, hand sanitizer, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colouring products intended to alter the user’s appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
Cosmetics that are meant to be applied to the face and eye area are usually applied with a brush or the fingertips.
Most cosmetics are distinguished by the area of the body intended for application.
Cosmetics can be also described by the physical composition of the product. Cosmetics can be liquid or cream emulsions; powders, both pressed and loose; dispersions; and anhydrous creams or sticks.
Makeup remover is a product used to remove the makeup products applied on the skin. It is used to clean the skin before other procedures, like applying bedtime lotion.
SKIN CARE PRODUCTS
Skin care products can also fall under the general category of cosmetics. These are products used to improve the appearance and health of skin, formulated for different types of skin and associated characteristics. Skin care products include cleansers, facial masks, toners, moisturizers, sunscreen, tanning oils and lotions, skin lighteners, serums and exfoliants.
There are four basic skin types & two skin conditions:
GENERAL SKIN CARE ROUTINES
Cleansing the face once per day is typically adequate for normal or dry skins. However, a mild cleanser should also be used at night if makeup has been worn to remove any excess dirt or oil. Oily skins should be cleansed more frequently, at least twice per day. Water-based, gentle cleansers are ideal for all skin types, though particularly acne-prone skin may require medicated cleansers containing benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid to discourage acne. While soap can be used as a cleanser, it should be avoided in cases of dry and sensitive skins; many alternatives are available. Oil-based cleansers have become particularly popular with oily skin, as they are very gentle and do not over-dry the skin, but still effectively remove dirt and makeup. It is important to cleanse before applying makeup, regardless of skin type, as this helps to create a clean surface for makeup application. Many cleansers are also suitable for use as a makeup remover, but a proper makeup remover is preferable, particularly for the removal of eye makeup.
There are many kinds of face masks available, which typically fall into one or more of the following categories:
Clay-based masks use kaolin clay or fuller's earth to transport essential oils and chemicals to the skin, and are typically left on until completely dry. As the clay dries, it absorbs excess oil and dirt from the surface of the skin and may help to clear blocked pores or draw comedones to the surface. Because of its drying actions, clay-based masks should only be used on oily skins.
Peel masks are typically gel-like in consistency, and contain various acids or exfoliating agents to help exfoliate the skin, along with other ingredients to hydrate, discourage wrinkles, or treat uneven skin tone. They are also left on to dry, and then gently peeled off. They should be avoided by people with dry skin, as they also tend to be very drying.
Sheet masks are relatively new products that are becoming extremely popular in Asia. Sheet masks consist of a thin cotton or fibre sheet with holes cut out for the eyes and lips and cut to fit the contours of the face, onto which serums and skin treatments are brushed in a thin layer; the sheets may also be soaked in the treatment. Masks are available to suit almost all skin types and skin complaints. Sheet masks are quicker, less messy, and require no specialized knowledge or equipment for their use compared to other types of face masks, but they may be difficult to find and purchase outside Asia
Chemical exfoliants may include citric acid (from citrus fruits), acetic acid (from vinegar), malic acid (from various fruits), glycolic acid, lactic acid or salicylic acid. They may be liquids or gels, and may or may not contain an abrasive to remove old skin cells afterwards. Abrasive exfoliants include gels, creams or lotions, as well as physical objects. Loofahs, microfibre cloths, natural sponges or brushes may be used to exfoliate skin, simply by rubbing them over the face in a circular motion. Gels, creams or lotions may contain an acid to encourage dead skin cells to loosen, and an abrasive such as beads, sea salt, sugar, ground nut shells, rice bran or ground apricot kernels to scrub the dead cells off the skin. Salt and sugar scrubs tend to be the harshest, while scrubs containing beads or rice bran are typically very gentle.
Toners typically contain alcohol, water, and herbal extracts or other chemicals depending on skin type. Toners containing alcohol are quite astringent, and usually targeted at oily skins. Dry or normal skin should be treated with alcohol-free toners. Witch hazel solution is a popular toner for all skin types, but many other products are available. Many toners also contain salicylic acid and/or benzoyl peroxide. These types of toners are also targeted at oily skin types, as well as acne-prone skin.
All skin types need moisturizing. Moisturizer helps prevent flaking and dryness, and may help to delay the formation of wrinkles. People with dry skin should choose oil-based moisturizers with ingredients to help the skin retain moisture and protect it from dryness, heat or cold in the environment. People with normal skin can choose from a wide variety of moisturizers, but light lotions or gels are typically all that is required. Water-based, low-oil and non-comedogenic moisturizers should be used on oily skin; medicated moisturizers containing tea tree extracts or fruit enzymes can help to control oil production or treat acne.
Eyes require a different kind of moisturizer compared with the rest of the face. The skin around the eyes is extremely thin and sensitive, and is often the first area to show signs of ageing. Eye creams are typically very light lotions or gels, and are usually very gentle; some may contain ingredients such as caffeine or Vitamin K to reduce puffiness and dark circles under the eyes. Eye creams or gels should be applied over the entire eye area with a finger, using a patting motion.
Sunscreens may come in the form of creams, gels or lotions; their SPF number indicates their effectiveness in protecting the skin from the sun's radiation. There are sunscreens available to suit every skin type; in particular, those with oily skin should choose non-comodegenic sunscreens; those with dry skins should choose sunscreens with moisturizers to help keep skin hydrated, and those with sensitive skin should choose unscented, hypoallergenic sunscreen and spot-test in an inconspicuous place (such as the inside of the elbow or behind the ear) to ensure that it does not irritate the skin.
The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The worlds largest cosmetic companies are The L'Oréal Group, The Procter & Gamble Company, Unilever, Shiseido Company, Limited and Estée Lauder Companies, Inc. The market volume of the cosmetics industry in the US, Europe, and Japan is about EUR 70B/y, according to a 2005 publication. In the United States, the cosmetic industry's size was US$42.8 billion in 2008. In Germany, the cosmetic industry generated €12.6 billion of retail sales in 2008, which makes the German cosmetic industry the third largest in the world, after Japan and the United States. It has been shown that in Germany this industry grew nearly 5 percent in one year, from 2007 to 2008. German exports in this industry reached €5.8 billion in 2008, whereas imports of cosmetics totalled €3 billion. The main countries that export cosmetics to Germany are France, Switzerland, the United States and Italy, and they mainly consist of makeup and fragrances or perfumes for women.
The worldwide cosmetics and perfume industry currently generates an estimated annual turnover of US$170 billion (according to Eurostaf – May 2007). Europe is the leading market, representing approximately €63 billion, while sales in France reached €6.5 billion in 2006, according to FIPAR (Fédération des Industries de la Parfumerie – the French federation for the perfume industry). France is another country in which the cosmetic industry plays an important role, both nationally and internationally. Most products with a label, "Made in France" are valued on the international market. According to data from 2008, the cosmetic industry has grown constantly in France for 40 consecutive years. In 2006, this industrial sector reached a record level of €6.5 billion. Famous cosmetic brands produced in France include Vichy, Yves Saint Laurent, Yves Rocher and many others.
The Italian cosmetic industry is also an important player in the European cosmetic market. Although not as large as in other European countries, the cosmetic industry in Italy was estimated to reach €9 billion in 2007. The Italian cosmetic industry is however dominated by hair and body products and not makeup as in many other European countries. In Italy, hair and body products make up approximately 30% of the cosmetic market. Makeup and facial care, however, are the most common cosmetic products exported to the United States.
Due to the popularity of cosmetics, especially fragrances and perfumes, many designers who are not necessarily involved in the cosmetic industry came up with different perfumes carrying their names. Moreover, some actors and singers (such as Celine Dion) have their own perfume line . Designer perfumes are, like any other designer products, the most expensive in the industry as the consumer pays not only for the product but also for the brand. Famous Italian fragrances are produced by Giorgio Armani, Dolce and Gabbana, and others.
Recently, Procter & Gamble, which sells CoverGirl and Dolce & Gabbana makeup, funded a study concluding that makeup makes women seem more competent. Due to the source of funding, the quality of this Boston University study is questioned.
The cosmetic industry worldwide seems to be continuously developing, now more than ever with the advent of the Internet companies. Many famous companies sell their cosmetic products online also in countries in which they do not have representatives.
Research on the email marketing of cosmetics to consumers suggests they are goal-oriented with email content that is seen as useful, motivating recipients to visit a store to test the cosmetics or talk to sales representatives. Useful content included special sales offerings and new product information rather than information about makeup trends.
CRITICISM AND CONTROVERSY
During the 20th century, the popularity of cosmetics increased rapidly. Cosmetics are increasingly used by girls at a young age, especially in the United States. Due to the fast-decreasing age of make-up users, many companies, from high-street brands like Rimmel to higher-end products like Estee Lauder, cater to this expanding market by introducing flavoured lipsticks and glosses, cosmetics packaged in glittery, sparkly packaging and marketing and advertising using young models. The social consequences of younger and younger cosmetics use has had much attention in the media over the last few years.
Criticism of cosmetics has come from a wide variety of sources including some feminists, religious groups, animal rights activists, authors, and public interest groups.
There has been a marketing trend towards the sale of cosmetics lacking controversial ingredients, especially those derived from petroleum, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and parabens. Numerous reports have raised concern over the safety of a few surfactants, including 2-butoxyethanol. SLS causes a number of skin problems, including dermatitis.
Parabens can cause skin irritation and contact dermatitis in individuals with paraben allergies, a small percentage of the general population. Animal experiments have shown that parabens have a weak estrogenic activity, acting as xenoestrogens. In 2013, the EU's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) reviewed the latest safety data on parabens and declared them to be harmless at the levels used in cosmetics.
Synthetic fragrances are widely used in consumer products. Studies concluded from patch testing show synthetic fragrances are made of many ingredients which cause allergic reactions.
Balsam of Peru was the main recommended marker for perfume allergy before 1977, which is still advised. The presence of Balsam of Peru in a cosmetic will be denoted by the INCI term Myroxylon pereirae. In some instances, Balsam of Peru is listed on the ingredient label of a product by one of its various names, but it may not be required to be listed by its name by mandatory labelling conventions (in fragrances, for example, it may simply be covered by an ingredient listing of "fragrance").
Cosmetics companies have been criticized for making pseudo-scientific claims about their products which are misleading or unsupported by scientific evidence.
Often, though, the speculation of safety of cosmetics originates from scare stories and internet hoaxes unsupported by science. Many ingredients deemed unsafe by the media have been found safe by scientists in the EU where astringent regulations are enforced.
Cosmetics testing is banned in the Netherlands, Belgium, and the UK, and in 2002, after 13 years of discussion, the European Union (EU) agreed to phase in a near-total ban on the sale of animal-tested cosmetics throughout the EU from 2009, and to ban all cosmetics-related animal testing. France, which is home to the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oreal, has protested the proposed ban by lodging a case at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg, asking that the ban be quashed. The ban is also opposed by the European Federation for Cosmetics Ingredients, which represents 70 companies in Switzerland, Belgium, France, Germany, and Italy.
In the European Union, the circulation of cosmetic products and their safety has been a subject of legislation since 1976. One of the newest improvement of the regulation concerning cosmetic industry is a result of the ban animal testing. Testing cosmetic products on animals has been illegal in the European Union since September 2004, and testing the separate ingredients of such products on animals is also prohibited by law, since March 2009 for some endpoints and full since 2013.
Cosmetic regulations in Europe are often updated to follow the trends of innovations and new technologies while ensuring product safety. For instance, all annexes of the Regulation 1223/2009 were aimed to address potential risks to human health. Under the EU cosmetic regulation, manufacturers, retailers and importers of cosmetics in Europe will be designated as “Responsible Person”. This new status implies that the responsible person has the legal liability to ensure that the cosmetics and brands they manufacture or sell comply with the current cosmetic regulations and norms. The responsible person is also responsible of the documents contained in the Product Information File (PIF), a list of product information including data such as Cosmetic Product Safety Report, product description, GMP statement or product function.
The current legislation restricts the use of certain substances such as pyrogallol, formaldehyde or paraformaldehyde and bans the use of others such as lead acetate in cosmetic products. All restricted and forbidden substances and products are listed in the regulation RDC 16/11 and RDC 162, 09/11/01.
More recently, a new cosmetic Technical Regulation (RDC 15/2013) was set up to establish a list of authorized and restricted substances for cosmetic use, used in products such as hair dyes, nail hardeners or used as product preservatives.
Most Brazilian regulations are optimized, harmonized or adapted in order to be applicable and extended to the entire Mercosur economic zone.
The standard is based on other quality management systems, ensuring smooth integration with such systems as ISO 9001 or the British Retail Consortium (BRC) standard for consumer products. Therefore, it combines the benefits of GMP, linking cosmetic product safety with overall business improvement tools that enable organisations to meet global consumer demand for cosmetic product safety certification.
In July 2012, since microbial contamination is one of the greatest concerns regarding the quality of cosmetic products, the ISO has introduced a new standard for evaluating the antimicrobial protection of a cosmetic product by preservation efficacy testing and microbiological risk assessment.
An account executive is responsible for visiting department and specialty stores with counter sales of cosmetics. They explain new products and "gifts with purchase" arrangements (free items given out upon purchase of cosmetics items costing over some set amount).
A beauty adviser provides product advice based on the client's skin care and makeup requirements. Beauty advisers can be certified by an Anti-Aging Beauty Institute.
A cosmetician is a professional who provides facial and body treatments for clients. The term cosmetologist is sometimes used interchangeably with this term, but the former most commonly refers to a certified professional. A freelance makeup artist provides clients with beauty advice and cosmetics assistance. They are usually paid by the hour by a cosmetic company, however they sometimes work independently.
Professionals in cosmetics marketing careers manage research focus groups, promote the desired brand image, and provide other marketing services (sales forecasting, allocation to different retailers, etc.).
Many involved within the cosmetics industry often specialize in a certain area of cosmetics such as special effects makeup or makeup techniques specific to the film, media and fashion sectors.
Read more about cosmetics at the following website address: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmetics