The following article was sourced from a Wikipedia page at the following address: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eye_shadow
Eye shadow is a cosmetic that is applied on the eyelids and under the eyebrows. It is commonly used to make the wearer's eyes stand out or look more attractive.
Eye shadow can add depth and dimension to one's eyes, complement the eye colour, or simply draw attention to the eyes. Eye shadow comes in many different colours and textures. It is usually made from a powder and mica, but can also be found in liquid, pencil, or mousse form.
Civilizations across the world use eye shadow - predominantly on females, but also occasionally on males. In Western society, it is seen as a feminine cosmetic, even when used by men.
In Gothic fashion, black or similarly dark-coloured eye shadow and other types of eye makeup are popular amongst both genders.
Many people use eye shadow simply to improve their appearance, but it is also commonly used in theatre and other plays, to create a memorable look, with bright, bold colours. Depending on skin tone and experience, the effect of eye shadow usually brings out glamour and gains attention. The use of eye shadow attempts to replicate the natural eye shadow that some women exhibit due to a natural contrasting pigmentation on their eyelids. Natural eye shadow can range anywhere from a glossy shine to one's eyelids, to a pinkish tone, or even a silver look.
Eye shadow can be applied in a wide variety of ways depending upon the desired look and formulation. Typically application is done using fingers or brushes. The most important aspect of applying eye shadow, and makeup in general, is blending well. However, you must not forget to include a primer to limit the chances of creases in your eye shadow later.
To remove eye shadow, a commercial eye makeup remover can be utilized, though a rich face wash will usually remove all traces of colour. Generally it is easy to remove, and simple water and soap can be used. Eye shadow, eyeliner, and mascara may also be removed using baby oil. There are also makeup wipes that can be used.
THE HISTORY OF EYE SHADOW
Cosmetics have been used for as long as there have been people to use them. Face painting is mentioned in the Old Testament (Book of Ezekiel 23:40) and eye shadow was used in Egyptian burials dating back to 10,000 BC. The word "cosmetae" was first used to describe Roman slaves whose duty was to bathe men and women in perfume.
As early as 10,000 BC, men and women used scented oils and ointments to clean and soften their skin and mask body odour. Dyes and paints were used to colour the skin, body and hair. They rouged their lips and cheeks, stained their nails with henna, and lined their eyes and eyebrows heavily with kohl. Kohl was a dark-coloured powder made of crushed antimony, burnt almonds, lead, oxidized copper, ochre, ash, malachite, and chrysocolla (a blue-green copper ore) or any combination thereof. It was applied with a small stick. The upper and lower eyelids were painted in a line that extended to the sides of the face for an almond effect. In addition to reducing sun glare, it was believed that kohl eyeliner could restore good eyesight and reduce eye infection. Kohl was kept in a small, flat-bottomed pot with a wide, tiny rim and a flat, disk-shaped lid. According to images of the time, the use of makeup was not limited to women. Highly polished silver and copper mirrors aided the application of makeup.
Common ingredients in eye shadows consist of talc, mica, sericite, magnesium stearate, colorants, and preservatives. Fillers in eye shadows are primarily talc. The liquid binders are typically a silicone and the dry binders are typically magnesium stearate. In order to make an eye shadow, there has to be a balance between the fillers, dry binders and liquid binders. Once the ideal combination is found the shadow are pressed using 700-900psi.
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