The following article was sourced from a Wikipedia page at the following address: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permanent_makeup
Permanent makeup is a cosmetic technique which employs tattoos (permanent pigmentation of the dermis) as a means of producing designs that resemble makeup, such as eyelining and other permanent enhancing colours to the skin of the face, lips, and eyelids. It is also used to produce artificial eyebrows, particularly in people who have lost them as a consequence of old age, disease, such as alopecia totalis, chemotherapy, or a genetic disturbance, and to disguise scars and white spots in the skin such as in vitiligo. It is also used to restore or enhance the breast's areola, such as after breast surgery.
Most commonly called permanent cosmetics, other names include dermapigmentation, micropigmentation, and cosmetic tattooing, the latter being most appropriate since permanent makeup is, in fact, tattooing. In the United States and under similar arrangements in some other countries, the colourant additives used in permanent makeup pigments are subject to pre market approval as cosmetics and or colour additives under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. However because of other competing public health priorities and a previous lack of evidence of safety problems specifically associated with these pigments, FDA traditionally has not exercised regulatory authority for colour additives on the pigments used in tattoo inks.
Permanent makeup dates back at least to the start of the 20th century, though its nature was often concealed in its early days. The tattooist George Burchett, a major developer of the technique when it become fashionable in the 1930s, described in his memoirs how beauty salons tattooed many women without their knowledge, offering it as a "complexion treatment ... of injecting vegetable dyes under the top layer of the skin."
At first, permanent makeup results may look darker. This is due to colour remaining in the outermost epidermal layers of skin at the start. Colour softens within a few days during the healing process as the upper layers of epidermis slough and are replaced by new epidermal cells.
However, before embarking on the aforementioned removal/correction procedures, it should also be noted that one still has the option of applying conventional makeup to correct any imperfections or to further enhance the overall effect.
As with tattoos, permanent makeup can be difficult to remove. Common techniques used for this are laser resurfacing, dermabrasion (physical or chemical exfoliation), and surgical removal. Camouflaging—adding a new pigment which counteracts the tattoo colour and attempts to emulate normal skin colour is considered a poor choice by professionals. Removal is more painful and laborious than the tattooing itself.
The choice to get a tattoo that is later regretted is related to the end-of-history illusion, in which teenagers and adults of all ages know that their tastes and preferred fashion and makeup styles have changed regularly over the years before the current moment, but they believe that their tastes will somehow not continue to grow and mature in the future.
ADVERSE EFFECTS AND COMPLICATIONS
As with tattoos, permanent makeup may have complications, such as allergies to the pigments, formation of scars, granulomas and keloids, skin cracking, peeling, blistering and local infection. The use of unsterilized tattooing instruments may infect the patient with serious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis. Removal problems may also ensue, due to patient dissatisfaction or regret, and they may be particularly difficult to remove in places such as eyelids and lips without leaving permanent sequelae. Compliance with 'standard precautions' and a uniform code of safe practice should be insisted upon by a person considering undergoing a cosmetic tattoo procedure.
It is essential that technicians use appropriate personal protective equipment to protect the health of the technician and the client particularly in the prevention of transmission of blood borne pathogens.
On very rare occasions, people with permanent makeup have reported swelling or burning in the affected areas when they underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However a detailed review of the cases within the medical literature involving cosmetic tattoos indicates that poor quality pigments, pigments adulterated with heavy metals, and pigments with diametric magnetic properties may have been the causative factors in most of those cases.
Topical anaesthetics are often used by technicians prior to Cosmetic Tattooing and there is the potential for adverse effects if topical anaesthetics are not used safely, in 2013 the International Industry association CosmeticTattoo.org published a detailed position and general safety precautions for the entire industry.
The causes of a change of colour after cosmetic tattooing are both complex and varied, as is discussed in the detailed industry article "Why Do Cosmetic Tattoos Change Colour", primarily there are four main areas that have influence over the potential for a cosmetic tattoo to change colour;
1) Factors related to the pigment characteristics
Technicians need to have a comprehensive understanding of these influences to achieve more predictable outcomes for their clients.
This client had her eyebrows and top eyeliner permanently tattooed. The eyebrow tattooing is an example of a "powdery filled" technique as opposed to individual hairline strokes since the client already has eyebrow hair but simply wanted an enhancement and shaping. The top eyeliner represents a thin eyeliner tattoo and a "lash enhancement" procedure that is used to define the eye without making it look excessively made up.
To read more about permanent makeup, please click on the following link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permanent_makeup