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Bodybuilding supplements are dietary supplements commonly used by those involved in bodybuilding and athletics. Bodybuilding supplements may be used to replace meals, enhance weight gain, promote weight loss or improve athletic performance. Among the most widely used are vitamin supplements, protein, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), glutamine, essential fatty acids, meal replacement products, creatine, weight loss products and testosterone boosters. Supplements are sold either as single ingredient preparations or in the form of "stacks" - proprietary blends of various supplements marketed as offering synergistic advantages. While many bodybuilding supplements are also consumed by the general public, their salience and frequency of use may differ when used specifically by bodybuilders.
Annual sales of sport nutrition products in the US is over $2.7 billion (US) according to Consumer Reports.
Athletes in ancient Greece were advised to consume large quantities of meat and wine. A number of herbal concoctions and tonics have been used by strongmen and athletes since ancient times across cultures for the enhancement of strength, vigour, prowess and stamina. In the 1910s, Eugen Sandow, widely considered to be the first modern bodybuilder in the West, advocated the use of dietary control to enhance muscle growth. Later, bodybuilder Earle Liederman advocated the use of "beef juice" or "beef extract" (basically, consomme) as a way to enhance muscle recovery. In 1950s with recreational and competitive bodybuilding becoming increasingly popular Irvin P. Johnson began to popularize and market egg-based protein powders marketed specifically at bodybuilders and physical athletes. The 1970s and 1980s marked an explosion in the growth of the bodybuilding supplement industry fueled by an unprecedented increase in mainstream recreational bodybuilding and the widespread use of modern marketing techniques.
In the USA, in October 1994, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was signed into law. Under DSHEA, a supplement manufacturer alone is responsible for determining that the dietary supplements it manufactures or distributes are safe. Dietary supplements did not henceforth need approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they were marketed. Except in the case of a new dietary ingredient, a firm did not have to provide FDA with the evidence to substantiate safety or effectiveness. It is widely believed that the 1994 DSHEA further consolidated the position of the supplement industry and lead to unprecedented growth and sales figures.
The US FDA reports 50,000 health problems a year due to dietary supplements. These often involve bodybuilding supplements.
For example, the "natural" best-seller Craze, 2012's "New Supplement of the Year" by bodybuilding.com, sold in Walmart, Amazon etc., was found to contain undisclosed amphetamine-like compounds. Also other products by Matt Cahill have contained dangerous substances causing blindness or liver damages, and experts say that Cahill is emblematic for the whole industry.
Modern bodybuilding supplements are often marketed as promoting various desirable processes related to improving nutrition, enhancing body composition or improving lifting performance. Supplements are often categorized accordingly. While many of these categories are based on scientifically based physiological or biochemical processes, their use in bodybuilding parlance is often heavily colored by bodybuilding lore and industry marketing and as such may deviate considerably from traditional scientific usages of these terms.
These supplements are set into place for the benefit of the consumer, but are only beneficial if used correctly. These include things like protein, creatine, and other workout substances used to maximize results. If supplements aren't used correctly, for example to much or to little, the body won't see results as advertised. Also supplements are only as effective in relation to the amount of effort/workout put in.
Bodybuilders often supplement their diets with a powdered form of protein. The powder is mixed with water, milk or juice. Protein powder is generally consumed immediately before and after exercising, or in place of a meal. Some types of protein are to be taken directly before and after a workout (whey protein), while others are to be taken before going to bed (casein protein). The theory behind this supplementation is that bodybuilders, by virtue of their unique training methods and end-goals, require higher-than-average quantities of protein to support maximal muscle growth.
"The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for both men and women is 0.80 g of good quality protein/kg body weight/d and is based on careful analyses of available nitrogen balance studies.". "In view of the lack of compelling evidence to the contrary, no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise."
No consensus has been reached in determining whether or not an individual in exercise training can benefit from protein and amino acid supplements. Protein supplements come in various forms: ready to drink shakes, bars, bites, oats, gels and powders. Protein powders are available in a variety of flavours.
Although it is generally believed that athletes and bodybuilders need an increased intake of protein, the exact amount is highly individualized and dependent on the type and duration of the exercise as well as the physiological make up of the individual. Age, gender, and body size may vary this protein intake. Some health experts have criticized protein shakes as being unnecessary for most people that consume them, since most users already get enough protein in the normal varied diet with enough calories. However, there is some evidence to support the idea that protein shakes are superior to whole foods with regards to enhancing muscle hypertrophy in the one hour window following intensive exercise. Moreover, for athletes who do not have the time to prepare whole food meals on the run or immediately after exercise, a protein shake may be preferred for practical as well as performance reasons.
A dietician has suggested that low-calorie dieters, vegetarians, haphazard eaters and those who train very heavily may benefit from protein supplements. However, at least in the case of people following vegetarian diets, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies states: "Available evidence does not support recommending a separate protein requirement for vegetarians who consume complementary mixtures of plant proteins."
Taking an overdose of protein can lead to a loss of appetite, which may be useful for some dieters. Nutritionists claim that osteoporosis occurs from excessive protein intake because protein can put pressure on the kidneys and lead to bone loss due to calcium leaching. However, recent research has cast doubts on these claims, and suggests that higher calcium excretion may be due to increased calcium absorption in the intestines due to protein intake. Indeed, it is well known that dietary protein is itself important for bone growth, and some studies have found increased bone formation in response to exchanging dietary carbohydrates for protein. Nutritionists also argue against increased protein consumption because weight gain may occur because, as the body cannot store protein, excess protein will either be burned as energy or stored as fat (if you are already getting the calories you need). However, dietary protein is converted to fat far less efficiently than either carbohydrates or lipids, so consuming a calorie excess in protein will result in far less fat gain than would a calorie excess of other macronutrients.
Research by Tarnopolsky et al. (1988) showed that for bodybuilding individuals, 0.96g of protein per kg of body weight per day is recommended, whereas endurance athletes require 1.34g per kg per day. Their findings indicated that protein requirements are actually much lower than might be expected and that protein supplements therefore may not be as effective as is popularly believed. It should be noted that both of these levels are significantly higher than the levels recommended for the general population (0.8 g protein / kg body weight). The study concluded that
"Bodybuilders during habitual training require a daily protein intake only slightly greater than that for sedentary individuals in the maintenance of lean body mass and that endurance athletes require daily protein intakes greater than either bodybuilders or sedentary individuals to meet the needs of protein catabolism during exercise.".
Another study suggests that the protein requirements for anaerobic and aerobic exercise are opposite those presented by Tarnopolsky. Endurance athletes in aerobic activity may have increased daily protein intake at 1.2–1.4 g per kg body weight per day—the same as the aforementioned study—where strength training athletes performing anaerobic activity may have increased daily protein intake needs at 1.4–1.8 g per kg body weight so as to enhance muscle protein synthesis or to make up for the loss of amino acid oxidation during exercise.
BRANCHED-CHAIN AMINO ACIDS
Amino acids are the building blocks of protein; the body breaks consumed protein into amino acids in the stomach and intestines. Amino Acids are classified as essential, conditionally essential and non-essential. There are three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs): leucine, isoleucine, and valine. All three branched-chain amino acids are essential amino acids. Each has numerous benefits on various biological processes in the body. Unlike other amino acids, BCAAs are metabolised in the muscle and have an anabolic/anti-catabolic effect on it. BCAAs account for 33% of muscle protein.
Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid found in human muscle and is commonly found in supplements or as a micronized, instantly soluble powder because supplement manufacturers claim the body's natural glutamine stores are depleted during anaerobic exercise. Some studies have shown there to be no significant effect of glutamine on bench press strength, knee-extension torque or lean muscle mass when compared to controls taking a placebo, though another study found that glutamine is beneficial in raising T-helper/suppressor cell ratio in long-distance runners.
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
The essential fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid) may be especially important to supplement while bodybuilding; these cannot readily be made in the body, but are required for various functions within the body to take place.
Fatty fish, such as fresh salmon and trout are rich in essential fatty acids and fish oils can also be taken in supplement form.
Flaxseed oil, often sold as a supplement on its own, is an ideal source of alpha-Linolenic acid, which can also be found in walnuts and pumpkin seeds.
MEAL REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS
Meal replacement products (MRPs) are either pre-packaged powdered drink mixes or edible bars designed to replace prepared meals. MRPs are generally high in protein, low in fat, have a low to moderate amount of carbohydrates, and contain a wide array of vitamins and minerals.
The majority of MRPs use whey protein, casein (often listed as calcium caseinate or micellar casein), soy protein, and/or egg albumin as protein sources. Carbohydrates are typically derived from maltodextrin, oat fibre, brown rice, and/or wheat flour. Some MRPs also contain flax oil powder as a source of essential fatty acids.
MRPs can also contain other ingredients, such as creatine monohydrate, glutamine peptides, L-glutamine, calcium alpha-ketoglutarate, additional amino acids, lactoferrin, conjugated linoleic acid, and medium-chain triglycerides.
A sub-class of MRPs are called 'weight gainers' and have a high ratio of carbohydrates:protein. Where a MRP would have a 0.25-2:1 ratio of Carbohydrates:Protein a weight gainer would have in the order of between 3-5:1 ratios.
Prohormones are precursors to hormones and are most typically sold to bodybuilders as a precursor to the natural hormone testosterone. This conversion requires naturally occurring enzymes in the body. Side effects are not uncommon, as prohormones can also convert further into DHT and oestrogen. To deal with this, many supplements also have aromatase inhibitors and DHT blockers such as chrysin and 4-androstene-3,6,17-trione. To date most prohormone products have not been thoroughly studied, and the health effects of prolonged use are unknown. Although initially available over the counter, their purchase was made illegal without a prescription in the US in 2004, and they hold similar status in many other countries. They remain legal however in the United Kingdom and the wider European Union. Their use is proscribed by most sporting bodies.
Creatine is an organic acid naturally occurring in the body that supplies energy to muscle cells for short bursts of energy (as required in lifting weights) via creatine phosphate replenishment of ATP. A number of scientific studies have shown that creatine can improve strength, energy, muscle mass, and recovery times. In addition, recent studies have also shown that creatine improves brain function. and reduces mental fatigue. Unlike steroids or other performance-enhancing drugs, creatine can be found naturally in many common foods such as herring, tuna, salmon, and beef.
Creatine increases what is known as cell volumization by drawing water into muscle cells, making them larger. This intracellular retention should not be confused with the common myth that creatine causes bloating (or intercellular water retention).
Creatine is sold in a variety of forms, including creatine monohydrate and creatine ethyl ester, amongst others. Though all types of creatine are sold for the same purposes, there are subtle differences between them, such as price and necessary dosage.
In The New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding, 2nd ed., author Arnold Schwarzenegger states:
Creatine monohydrate is regarded as a necessity by most bodybuilders. Creatine monohydrate is the most cost-effective dietary supplement in terms of muscle size and strength gains. … There is no preferred creatine supplement, but it is believed that creatine works best when it is consumed with simple carbohydrates. This can be accomplished by mixing powdered creatine with grape juice, lemonade, or many high glycemic index drinks.
Some studies have suggested that consumption of creatine with protein and carbohydrates can have a greater effect than creatine combined with either protein or carbohydrates alone.
A thermogenic is a broad term for any supplement that the manufacturer claims will cause thermogenesis, resulting in increased body temperature, increased metabolic rate, and consequently an increased rate in the burning of body fat and weight loss. Until 2004 almost every product found in this supplement category comprised the "ECA stack": ephedrine, caffeine and aspirin. However, on February 6, 2004 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned the sale of ephedra and its alkaloid, ephedrine, for use in weight loss formulas. Several manufacturers replaced the ephedra component of the "ECA" stack with bitter orange or citrus aurantium (containing synephrine) instead of the ephedrine.
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