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Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen (egg white), and vitellus (egg yolk), contained within various thin membranes. The most popular choice for egg consumption are chicken eggs. Other popular choices for egg consumption are duck, quail, roe, and caviar.
Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline, and are widely used in cookery. Due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture categorizes eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid. Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are some potential health issues arising from egg quality, storage, and individual allergies.
Chickens and other egg-laying creatures are widely kept throughout the world, and mass production of chicken eggs is a global industry. In 2009, an estimated 62.1 million metric tons of eggs were produced worldwide from a total laying flock of approximately 6.4 billion hens. There are issues of regional variation in demand and expectation, as well as current debates concerning methods of mass production. The European Union recently banned battery husbandry of chickens.
Bird eggs have been valuable foodstuffs since prehistory, in both hunting societies and more recent cultures where birds were domesticated. The chicken was probably domesticated for its eggs from jungle fowl native to tropical and subtropical Southeast Asia and India before 7500 BCE. Chickens were brought to Sumer and Egypt by 1500 BCE, and arrived in Greece around 800 BCE, where the quail had been the primary source of eggs. In Thebes, Egypt, the tomb of Haremhab, built about 1420 BCE, shows a depiction of a man carrying bowls of ostrich eggs and other large eggs, presumably those of the pelican, as offerings. In ancient Rome, eggs were preserved using a number of methods, and meals often started with an egg course. The Romans crushed the shells in their plates to prevent evil spirits from hiding there. In the Middle Ages, eggs were forbidden during Lent because of their richness. The word mayonnaise possibly was derived from moyeu, the medieval French word for the yolk, meaning centre or hub.
Egg scrambled with acidic fruit juices were popular in France in the 17th century; this may have been the origin of lemon curd.
The dried egg industry developed in the 19th century, before the rise of the frozen egg industry. In 1878, a company in St. Louis, Missouri started to transform egg yolk and white into a light-brown, meal-like substance by using a drying process. The production of dried eggs significantly expanded during World War II, for use by the United States Armed Forces and its allies.
In 1911, the egg carton was invented by Joseph Coyle in Smithers, British Columbia, to solve a dispute about broken eggs between a farmer in Bulkley Valley and the owner of the Aldermere Hotel. Early egg cartons were made of paper.
Bird eggs are a common food and one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking. They are important in many branches of the modern food industry. The most commonly used bird eggs are those from the chicken. Duck and goose eggs, and smaller eggs, such as quail eggs, occasionally used as a gourmet ingredient in western countries, are common everyday food in many parts of East Asia such as China and Vietnam. The largest bird eggs, from ostriches tend to be used only as special luxury food. Gull eggs are considered a delicacy in England, as well as in some Scandinavian countries, particularly in Norway. In some African countries, guineafowl eggs are commonly seen in marketplaces, especially in the spring of each year. Pheasant eggs and emu eggs are perfectly edible, but less widely available. Sometimes they are obtainable from farmers, poulterers, or luxury grocery stores. In many countries, wild birds’ eggs are protected by laws which prohibit collecting or selling them, or permit collection only during specific periods of the year.
ANATOMY AND CHARACTERISTICS
The shape of an egg resembles a prolate spheroid with one end larger than the other, with cylindrical symmetry along the long axis.
An egg is surrounded by a thin, hard shell. Inside, the egg yolk is suspended in the egg white by one or two spiral bands of tissue called the chalazae (from the Greek word, meaning hailstone or hard lump).
Egg white consists primarily of about 90% water into which is dissolved 10% proteins (including albumins, mucoproteins, and globulins). Unlike the yolk, which is high in lipids (fats), egg white contains almost no fat, and the carbohydrate content is less than 1%. Egg white has many uses in food, and many others, including the preparation of vaccines such as those for influenza.
Yolk colour is dependent on the diet of the hen; if the diet contains yellow/orange plant pigments known as xanthophylls, then they are deposited in the yolk, colouring it. Lutein is the most abundant pigment in egg yolk. A colourless diet can produce an almost colourless yolk. Yolk colour is, for example, enhanced if the diet includes products such as yellow corn and marigold petals. In the US, the use of artificial colour additives is forbidden.
Types of dishes
Chicken eggs are widely used in many types of dishes, both sweet and savoury, including many baked goods. Some of the most common preparation methods include scrambled, fried, hard-boiled, soft-boiled, omelettes and pickled. They can also be eaten raw, though this is not recommended for people who may be especially susceptible to salmonellosis, such as the elderly, the infirm, or pregnant women. In addition, the protein in raw eggs is only 51% bioavailable, whereas that of a cooked egg is nearer 91% bioavailable, meaning the protein of cooked eggs is nearly twice as absorbable as the protein from raw eggs.
As an ingredient, egg yolks are an important emulsifier in the kitchen, and are also used as a thickener in custards.
The albumen, or egg white, contains protein, but little or no fat, and can be used in cooking separately from the yolk. The proteins in egg white allow it to form foams and aerated dishes. Egg whites may be aerated or whipped to a light, fluffy consistency, and are often used in desserts such as meringues and mousse.
Ground egg shells are sometimes used as a food additive to deliver calcium. Every part of an egg is edible, although the eggshell is generally discarded. Some recipes call for immature or unlaid eggs, which are harvested after the hen is slaughtered or cooked while still inside the chicken.
Eggs contain multiple proteins which gel at different temperatures within the yolk and the white, and the temperature determines the gelling time. Egg yolk begins to gelify, or solidify, when it reaches temperatures between about 63 and 70 °C (145 and 158 °F). Egg white gels at slightly higher temperatures, about 60 to 80 °C (140 to 176 °F)- the white contains ovalbumin that sets at the highest temperature. However, in practice, in many cooking processes the white gels first because it is exposed to higher temperatures for longer.
Salmonella is killed instantly at 71 °C (160 °F), but is also killed from 54.5 °C (130.1 °F) if held there for sufficiently long time periods. To avoid the issue of salmonella, eggs can be pasteurised in-shell at 57 °C (135 °F) for an hour and 15 minutes. Although the white is slightly milkier, the eggs can be used in normal ways. Whipping for meringue takes significantly longer, but the final volume is virtually the same.
If a boiled egg is overcooked, a greenish ring sometimes appears around egg yolk due to the iron and sulphur compounds in the egg. It can also occur with an abundance of iron in the cooking water. The green ring does not affect the egg's taste; overcooking, however, harms the quality of the protein. Chilling the egg for a few minutes in cold water until it is completely cooled may prevent the greenish ring from forming on the surface of the yolk.
Although the age of the egg and the conditions of its storage have a greater influence, the bird's diet does affect the flavour of the egg. For example, when a brown-egg chicken breed eats rapeseed or soy meals, its intestinal microbes metabolize them into fishy-smelling triethylamine, which ends up in the egg. The unpredictable diet of free-range hens will produce unpredictable eggs. Duck eggs tend to have a flavour distinct from, but still resembling, chicken eggs.
Eggs can also be soaked in mixtures to absorb flavour. Tea eggs are steeped in a brew from a mixture of various spices, soy sauce, and black tea leaves to give flavour.
Refrigeration also preserves the taste and texture. However, uncracked eggs can be left unrefrigerated for several months without spoiling. In Europe, eggs are not usually washed, and the shells are dirtier, however the cuticle is undamaged, and they do not require refrigeration. In the UK in particular, hens are immunised against salmonella, and the eggs are generally safe for 21 days.
The simplest method to preserve an egg is to treat it with salt. Salt draws water out of bacteria and moulds, which prevents their growth. The Chinese salted duck egg is made by immersing duck eggs in brine, or coating them individually with a paste of salt and mud or clay. The eggs stop absorbing salt after about a month, having reached osmotic equilibrium. Their yolks take on an orange-red colour and solidify, but the white remains liquid. They are often boiled before consumption, and are often served with rice congee.
Another method is to make pickled eggs, by boiling them first and immersing them in a mixture of vinegar, salt, and spices, such as ginger or allspice. Frequently, beetroot juice is added to impart a red colour to the eggs. If the eggs are immersed in it for a few hours, the distinct red, white, and yellow colours can be seen when the eggs are sliced. If marinated for several days or more, the red colour will reach the yolk. If the eggs are marinated in the mixture for several weeks or more, the vinegar will dissolve much of the shell's calcium carbonate and penetrate the egg, making it acidic enough to inhibit the growth of bacteria and moulds. Pickled eggs made this way will generally keep for a year or more without refrigeration.
A century egg or hundred-year-old egg is preserved by coating an egg in a mixture of clay, wood ash, salt, lime, and rice straw for several weeks to several months, depending on the method of processing. After the process is completed, the yolk becomes a dark green, cream-like substance with a strong odour of sulphur and ammonia, while the white becomes a dark brown, transparent jelly with a comparatively mild, distinct flavour. The transforming agent in a century egg is its alkaline material, which gradually raises the pH of the egg from around 9 to 12 or more. This chemical process breaks down some of the complex, flavourless proteins and fats of the yolk into simpler, flavourful ones, which in some way may be thought of as an "inorganic" version of fermentation.
Other egg substitutes are made from just the white of the egg for those who worry about the high cholesterol and fat content in eggs. These products usually have added vitamins and minerals, as well as vegetable-based emulsifiers and thickeners such as xanthan gum or guar gum. These allow the product to maintain the nutrition and several culinary properties of real eggs, making possible foods such as Hollandaise sauce, custard, mayonnaise, and most baked goods with these substitutes.
A 100 gram serving of eggs (see Chicken egg sizes) provides 155 calories (kcal) of food energy and 12.6 g of protein (table).
Vitamins A and D are in the egg yolk, one of the few foods to naturally contain vitamin D. A yolk contains more than two-thirds of the recommended daily intake of 300 mg of cholesterol (table). The yolk makes up about 33% of the liquid weight of the egg, containing all of the fat, slightly less than half of the protein, and most of the other nutrients.
The diet of the laying hens can greatly affect the nutritional quality of the eggs. For instance, chicken eggs that are especially high in omega 3 fatty acids are produced by feeding laying hens a diet containing polyunsaturated fats and kelp meal. However, pasture-raised free-range hens which forage largely for their own food produce eggs that are not nutritionally different from cage-raised chickens. Further, focusing on the protein and crude fat content, a 2010 USDA study determined there were no significant differences of macronutrients in consumer chicken eggs.
Cooked eggs are easier to digest, as well as having a lower risk of salmonellosis.
Cholesterol and fat
There is debate over whether egg yolk presents a health risk. Some research suggests dietary cholesterol increases the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol and, therefore, adversely affects the body's cholesterol profile; whereas other studies show that moderate consumption of eggs, up to one a day, does not appear to increase heart disease risk in healthy individuals. Harold McGee argues that the cholesterol in the yolk is not what causes a problem, because fat (in particular, saturated) is much more likely to raise cholesterol levels than the actual consumption of cholesterol.
Type 2 diabetes
The 1999 Harvard School of Public Health study of 37,851 men and 80,082 women concluded that its "findings suggest that consumption of up to 1 egg per day is unlikely to have substantial overall impact on the risk of CHD or stroke among healthy men and women." In a study of 4,000 people, scientists found that eating eggs increased blood levels of a metabolite promoting atherosclerosis, trimethylamine-N-oxide, and that this in turn caused significantly higher risk of heart attack and stroke after three years of follow-up.
A 2007 study of nearly 10,000 adults demonstrated no correlation between moderate (six per week) egg consumption and cardiovascular disease or strokes, except in the subpopulation of diabetic patients who presented an increased risk of coronary heart disease. One potential alternative explanation for the null finding is that background dietary cholesterol may be so high in the usual Western diet that adding somewhat more has little further effect on blood cholesterol. Other research supports the idea that a high egg intake increases cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. A 2009 prospective cohort study of over 21,000 individuals suggests that "egg consumption up to 6/week has no major effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality and that consumption of 7+/week is associated with a modest increased risk of total mortality" in males, whereas among males with diabetes, "any egg consumption is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and there was suggestive evidence for an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke". A 2013 meta-analysis found no association between egg consumption and heart disease or stroke. A 2013 systematic review and meta-analysis found no association between egg consumption and cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular disease mortality. Another 2013 meta-analysis found that eating 4 eggs per week increased the risk of cardiovascular disease by 6%.
A health issue associated with eggs is contamination by pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella enteritidis. Contamination of eggs exiting a female bird via the cloaca may also occur with other members of the Salmonella genus, so care must be taken to prevent the egg shell from becoming contaminated with faecal matter. In commercial practice in the US, eggs are quickly washed with a sanitizing solution within minutes of being laid. The risk of infection from raw or undercooked eggs is dependent in part upon the sanitary conditions under which the hens are kept.
Health experts advise people to refrigerate washed eggs, use them within two weeks, cook them thoroughly, and never consume raw eggs. As with meat, containers and surfaces that have been used to process raw eggs should not come in contact with ready-to-eat food.
A study by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2002 (Risk Analysis April 2002 22(2):203-18) suggests the problem is not as prevalent as once thought. It showed that of the 69 billion eggs produced annually, only 2.3 million are contaminated with Salmonella—equivalent to just one in every 30,000 eggs—thus showing Salmonella infection is quite rarely induced by eggs. However, this has not been the case in other countries, where Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium infections due to egg consumptions are major concerns. Egg shells act as hermetic seals that guard against bacteria entering, but this seal can be broken through improper handling or if laid by unhealthy chickens. Most forms of contamination enter through such weaknesses in the shell. In the UK, the British Egg Industry Council award the lions stamp to eggs that, among other things, come from hens that have been vaccinated against Salmonella.
In addition to true allergic reactions, some people experience a food intolerance to egg whites.
Food labelling practices in most developed countries now include eggs, egg products and the processing of foods on equipment that also process foods containing eggs in a special allergen alert section of the ingredients on the labels.
Most commercially farmed chicken eggs intended for human consumption are unfertilized, since the laying hens are kept without roosters. Fertile eggs can be eaten, with little nutritional difference to the unfertilized. Fertile eggs will not contain a developed embryo, as refrigeration temperatures inhibit cellular growth for an extended time. Sometimes an embryo is allowed to develop but eaten before hatching as with balut.
Grading by quality and size
In Australia and the European Union, eggs are graded by the hen farming method, free range, battery caged, etc.
Chicken eggs are also graded by size for the purpose of sales. Some maxi eggs can have double-yolk and some farms separate out double-yolk eggs for special sale.
Washing and refrigeration
Colour of eggshell
Although egg colour is a largely cosmetic issue, with no effect on egg quality or taste, it is a major issue in production due to regional and national preferences for specific colours, and the results of such preferences on demand. For example, in most regions of the United States, chicken eggs are generally white. In some parts of the northeast of that country, particularly New England, where a television jingle for years proclaimed "brown eggs are local eggs, and local eggs are fresh!", brown eggs are more common. Local chicken breeds, including the Rhode Island Red, lay brown eggs. Brown eggs are also preferred in Costa Rica, Ireland, France, and the United Kingdom. In Brazil and Poland, white chicken eggs are generally regarded as industrial, and brown or reddish ones are preferred. Small farms and smallholdings, particularly in economically advanced nations, may sell eggs of widely varying colours and sizes, with combinations of white, brown, speckled (red), green, and blue (as laid by certain breeds, including araucanas, heritage skyline, and cream legbar) eggs in the same box or carton, while the supermarkets at the same time sell mostly eggs from the larger producers, of the colour preferred in that nation or region.
These cultural trends have been observed for many years. The New York Times reported during the Second World War that housewives in Boston preferred brown eggs and those in New York preferred white eggs. In February 1976, the New Scientist magazine, in discussing issues of chicken egg colour, stated "Housewives are particularly fussy about the colour of their eggs, preferring even to pay more for brown eggs although white eggs are just as good". As a result of these trends, brown eggs are usually more expensive to purchase in regions where white eggs are considered 'normal', due to lower production. In France and the United Kingdom it is very difficult to buy white eggs, with most supermarkets supplying only the more popular brown eggs. By direct contrast, in Egypt it is very hard to source brown eggs, as demand is almost entirely for white ones, with the country's largest supplier describing white eggs as "table eggs" and packaging brown eggs for export.
Research conducted by a France institute in the 1970s demonstrated blue chicken eggs from the Chilean araucana fowl can be stronger and more resilient to breakage.
Research at Nihon University, Japan in 1990 revealed a number of different issues were important to Japanese housewives when deciding which eggs to buy; however, colour was a distinct factor, with most Japanese housewives preferring the white colour.
Egg producers carefully consider cultural issues, as well as commercial ones, when selecting the breed or breeds of chicken used for production, as egg colour varies between breeds. Among producers and breeders, brown eggs are often referred to as "tinted", while the speckled eggs preferred by some consumers are often referred to as being "red" in colour.
Living conditions of birds
Commercial factory farming operations often involve raising the hens in small, crowded cages, preventing the chickens from engaging in natural behaviours, such as wing-flapping, dust-bathing, scratching, pecking, perching and nest-building. Such restrictions can lead to pacing and escape behaviour.
Many hens confined to battery cages, and some raised in cage-free conditions, are debeaked to prevent harming each other and cannibalism. According to critics of the practice, this can cause hens severe pain to the point where some may refuse to eat and starve to death. Some hens may be force moulted to increase egg quality and production level after the moulting. Moulting can be induced by extended feed withdrawal, water withdrawal or controlled lighting programs.
Laying hens are often slaughtered between 100 and 130 weeks of age, when their egg productivity starts to decline. Due to modern selective breeding, laying hen strains differ from meat production strains. As male birds of the laying strain do not lay eggs and are not suitable for meat production, they are generally killed soon after they hatch.
Free-range eggs are considered by some advocates to be an acceptable substitute to factory-farmed eggs. Free-range laying hens are given outdoor access instead of being contained in crowded cages. Questions on the actual living conditions of free-range hens have been raised in the United States of America, as there is no legal definition or regulations for eggs labeled as free-range in that country.
In the United States, increased public concern for animal welfare has pushed various egg producers to promote eggs under a variety of standards. The most widespread standard in use is determined by United Egg Producers through their voluntary program of certification. The United Egg Producers program includes guidelines regarding housing, food, water, air, living space, beak trimming, moulting, handling, and transportation, however, opponents such as The Humane Society have alleged UEP Certification is misleading and allows a significant amount of unchecked animal cruelty. Other standards include "Cage Free", "Natural", "Certified Humane", and "Certified Organic". Of these standards, "Certified Humane", which carries requirements for stocking density and cage-free keeping and so on, and "Certified Organic", which requires hens to have outdoor access and be fed only organic vegetarian feed and so on, are the most stringent.
Effective 1 January 2012, the European Union banned conventional battery cages for egg-laying hens, as outlined in EU Directive 1999/74/EC. The EU permits the use of "enriched" furnished cages that must meet certain space and amenity requirements. Egg producers in many member states have objected to the new quality standards while in some countries even furnished cages and family cages are subject to be banned as well. The production standard of the eggs is visible on the mandatory egg marking where the EU egg code begins with 3 for caged chicken to 1 for free-range eggs and 0 for organic egg production.
Killing of male chicks
A popular Easter tradition in some parts of the world is the decoration of hard-boiled eggs (usually by dyeing, but often by spray-painting). Adults often hide the eggs for children to find, an activity known as an Easter egg hunt. A similar tradition of egg painting exists in areas of the world influenced by the culture of Persia. Before the spring equinox in the Persian New Year tradition (called Norouz), each family member decorates a hard-boiled egg and sets them together in a bowl.
The tradition of a dancing egg is held during the feast of Corpus Christi in Barcelona and other Catalan cities since the 16th century. It consists of an emptied egg, positioned over the water jet from a fountain, which starts turning without falling.
Although a food item, eggs are sometimes thrown at houses, cars, or people. This act, known commonly as "egging" in the various English-speaking countries, is a minor form of vandalism and, therefore, usually a criminal offense and is capable of damaging property (egg whites can degrade certain types of vehicle paint) as well as causing serious eye injury. On Halloween, for example, trick or treaters have been known to throw eggs (and sometimes flour) at property or people from whom they received nothing. Eggs are also often thrown in protests, as they are inexpensive and nonlethal, yet very messy when broken.
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