Stay Home. Stay Safe. Stay Informed: www.sacoronavirus.co.za

All about legumes

The following article was sourced from a Wikipedia page at the following address:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legume

LEGUMES


A selection of various legumes

A legume  is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant. Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for their food grain seed (e.g., beans and lentils, or generally pulse), for livestock forage and silage, and as soil-enhancing green manure. Legumes are notable in that most of them have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, lupins, mesquite, carob, soybeans, peanuts and tamarind.

A legume fruit is a simple dry fruit that develops from a simple carpel and usually dehisces (opens along a seam) on two sides. A common name for this type of fruit is a pod, although the term "pod" is also applied to a few other fruit types, such as that of vanilla (a capsule) and of radish (a silique).

NITROGEN-FIXING ABILITY

Many legumes (alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, soybeans, peanuts and others) contain symbiotic bacteria called Rhizobia within root nodules of their root systems. (Plants belonging to the genus Styphnolobium are one exception to this rule.) These bacteria have the special ability of fixing nitrogen from atmospheric, molecular nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3). The chemical reaction is:

Ammonia is then converted to another form, ammonium (NH4+), usable by (some) plants by the following reaction:

This arrangement means that the root nodules are sources of nitrogen for legumes, making them relatively rich in plant proteins. All proteins contain nitrogenous amino acids. Nitrogen is therefore a necessary ingredient in the production of proteins. Hence, legumes are among the best sources of plant protein.

When a legume plant dies in the field, for example following the harvest, all of its remaining nitrogen, incorporated into amino acids inside the remaining plant parts, is released back into the soil. In the soil, the amino acids are converted to nitrate (NO3−), making the nitrogen available to other plants, thereby serving as fertilizer for future crops.

In many traditional and organic farming practices, crop rotation involving legumes is common. By alternating between legumes and nonlegumes, sometimes planting nonlegumes two times in a row and then a legume, the field usually receives a sufficient amount of nitrogenous compounds to produce a good result, even when the crop is nonleguminous. Legumes are sometimes referred to as "green manure".

USES BY HUMANS


Freshly dug peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), indehiscent legume fruits


White clover, a forage crop

Farmed legumes can belong to many agricultural classes, including forage, grain, blooms, pharmaceutical/industrial, fallow/green manure, and timber species. Most commercially farmed species fill two or more roles simultaneously, depending upon their degree of maturity when harvested.

Forage legumes are of two broad types. Some, like alfalfa, clover, vetch (Vicia), stylo (Stylosanthes), or Arachis, are sown in pasture and grazed by livestock. Other forage legumes such as Leucaena or Albizia are woody shrub or tree species that are either broken down by livestock or regularly cut by humans to provide livestock feed.

Grain legumes are cultivated for their seeds, and are also called pulses. The seeds are used for human and animal consumption or for the production of oils for industrial uses. Grain legumes include beans, lentils, lupins, peas, and peanuts.

Legume species grown for their flowers include lupins, which are farmed commercially for their blooms as well as being popular in gardens worldwide. Industrially farmed legumes include Indigofera and Acacia species, which are cultivated for dye and natural gum production, respectively. Fallow/green manure legume species are cultivated to be tilled back into the soil in order to exploit the high levels of captured atmospheric nitrogen found in the roots of most legumes. Numerous legumes farmed for this purpose include Leucaena, Cyamopsis, and Sesbania species. Various legume species are farmed for timber production worldwide, including numerous Acacia species and Castanospermum australe.

Legume trees like the locust trees (Gleditsia, Robinia) or the Kentucky coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus) can be used in permaculture food forests. Other legume trees like laburnum and the woody climbing vine wisteria are poisonous.

NUTRITIONAL FACTS

Legumes are a significant source of protein, dietary fiber, carbohydrates and micronutrients, including folate, thiamin, manganese, magnesium and iron, such as for cooked black beans.

Common examples of protein combining using legumes are Indian dal and rice, Mexican beans with corn tortillas, Middle Eastern hummus commonly served with pita bread, and mujaddara, a dish consisting mainly of rice and lentils.

LIST OF LEGUMES

This list is not a definitive list of legumes, may contain Heirloom seeds, and represents variation in preparation, such as for tofu.

 

  • Aburage
  • Akamiso
  • Anasazi Beans
  • Appaloosa Bean
  • Arhar
  • Arhar Dal
  • Asuki Bean
  • Atsuage
  • Awase Miso
  • Azufrado Bean
  • Baby Lima Bean
  • Bamboo Yuba
  • Barley Miso
  • Bayo Bean
  • Bean
  • Beechmast
  • Bengal Gram
  • Black Adzuki Bean
  • Black Bean
  • Black Chickpeas
  • Black Gram
  • Black Lentil
  • Black Lentil
  • Black Turtle Bean
  • Bolita Bean
  • Bonavist Bean
  • Borlotti Bean
  • Boston Bean
  • Boston Navy Bean
  • Breadnut Seeds
  • Brown Lentil
  • Brown Rice Miso
  • Brown Speckled Cow
  • Buah Keras
  • Butternut
  • Butterscotch Calypso
  • Calypso Bean
  • Canaria Bean
  • Canario Bean
  • Chana Dal
  • Channa Dal
  • Chestnut Lima Bean
  • Chili Bean
  • Chilke Urad
  • Chinese Black Bean
  • Chinese Yuba
  • Chowli Dal
  • Christmas Lima Bean
  • Chufa
  • Coco Bean
  • Coco Blanc Bean
  • Continental Lentil
  • Crab Eye Bean
  • Cranberry Bean
  • Daal
  • Dal
  • Dark Miso
  • Deep-Fried Tofu
  • Dermason Bean
  • Dhaal
  • Dhal
  • Dhall
  • Doufu
  • Dow Fu Kon
  • Dow See
  • Dried Bean Curd Stick
  • Dried Bean Stick
  • Dried Chestnut
  • Egyptian Bean
  • Egyptian Lentil
  • Egyptian White Broad
  • European Soldier Bean
  • Extra-Firm Tofu
  • Eye Of Goat Bean
  • Fagioli
  • Fagiolo Romano
  • Fayot
  • Fazolia Bean
  • Fermented Bean Cake
  • Fermented Bean Curd
  • Fermented Black Bean
  • Fermented Soy Cheese
  • Flageolet
  • Foo Yi
  • Foo Yu
  • French Green Lentils
  • Frijo Bola Roja
  • Frijole Negro
  • Fu Jook Pei
  • Fu Yu
  • Fuji Mame
  • Genmai Miso
  • German Lentil
  • Gram Dal
  • Great Northern Bean
  • Green Gram
  • Green Lentil
  • Hang Yen
  • Haricot Bean
  • Haricot Blanc Bean
  • Hatcho Miso
  • Hat-Cho Miso
  • Hyacinth Bean
  • Inaka Miso
  • Inariage
  • Indian Bean
  • Indian Brown Lentil
  • Jackson Wonder Bean
  • Kala Channa
  • Kali Dal
  • Kemiri
  • Kidney Bean
  • Kinu-Goshi
  • Kirazu
  • Kluwak Kupas
  • Kyoto Shiro Miso
  • Lablab Bean
  • Lablab Beanval
  • Lentilles Du Puy
  • Lentilles Vertes Du Puy
  • Lentils
  • Ling Chio
  • Ling Jiao
  • Ling Kio
  • Ling Kok
  • Lingot Bean
  • Lupini Bean
  • Maicoba Bean
  • Maine Yellow Eye
  • Mame Miso
  • Mamemiso
  • Mape
  • Marrow Bean
  • Masar
  • Masar Dal
  • Masoor
  • Masoor Dal
  • Masur Dal
  • Matki
  • Mayocoba Bean
  • Mellow Miso
  • Mexican Black Bean
  • Mexican Red Bean
  • Miso
  • Moath
  • Molasses Face Bean
  • Moong Dal
  • Mortgage Lifter Bean
  • Mortgage Runner Bean
  • Mugi Miso
  • Mung Bean
  • Mung Pea
  • Mungo Bean
  • Mussoor
  • Mussoor Dal
  • Nama Nori San
  • Nama-Age
  • Nato
  • Natto
  • Nattou
  • Navy Bean
  • Nigari Tofu
  • Okara
  • Orca Bean
  • Pea
  • Pea Bean
  • Peanut
  • Pecan
  • Peruano Bean
  • Peruvian Bean
  • Petite Beluga Lentil
  • Pignoli
  • Pignolia
  • Pignolo
  • Pine Kernel
  • Pink Bean
  • Pink Lentil
  • Pinolea
  • Pinoli
  • Piñon
  • Pinto Bean
  • Pinyon
  • Pressed Tofu
  • Prince Bean
  • Purple Appaloosa Bean
  • Puy Lentils
  • Rajma
  • Rattlesnake Bean
  • Red Ball Bean
  • Red Eye Bean
  • Red Kidney Bean
  • Red Lentil
  • Red Miso
  • Refried Beans
  • Regular Tofu
  • Roasted Soybeans
  • Roman Bean
  • Rosecoco Bean
  • Salty Black Bean
  • Saluggia
  • Salugia Bean
  • Scarlet Runner Bean
  • Sendai Miso
  • Shell Bean
  • Shinshu Miso
  • Shiro Miso
  • Shiromiso
  • Sieva Bean
  • Silken Tofu
  • Small Red Bean
  • Small White Bean
  • Snoober
  • Soy Cheese
  • Soy Mayonnaise
  • Soy Nut Butter
  • Soy Nuts
  • Soy Sour Cream
  • Soy Yogurt
  • Soybean Paper
  • Soybean Paste
  • Soynut Butter
  • Spanish Black Bean
  • Spanish Tolosana Bean
  • Speckled Brown Cow
  • Split Black Lentils
  • Split Lablab Beans
  • Steuben Yellow Bean
  • Steuben Yellow Eye
  • Sui-Doufu
  • Swedish Brown Bean
  • Sweet Miso
  • Sweet White Miso
  • Tempe
  • Tempeh
  • Tofu
  • Tofu Mayonnaise
  • Tofu Sour Cream
  • Tolosana Bean
  • Tongues Of Fire Bean
  • Toor
  • Toor Dal
  • Tremmocos
  • Trout Bean
  • Tur
  • Tur Dal
  • Turtle Bean
  • Tuvar
  • Tuvar Dal
  • Tvp
  • Uba
  • Unohana
  • Urad Dal
  • Usuage
  • Usu-Age
  • Val Dal
  • Vallarta Bean
  • Water Caltrop
  • Wet Bean Curd
  • Whit Bean
  • White Kidney Bean
  • White Lentils
  • White Miso
  • White Pea Bean
  • Yankee Bean
  • Yellow Indian Woman Bean
  • Yellow Lentils
  • Yellow Lentils
  • Yin Yang Bean
  • Yuba

To read more about legumes, please click on the following link:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legume

Wikipedia: